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153/2021-22 09-06-2021
Improving Cleanliness Through Bio Toilets

As a part of “Swachh Bharat Mission”, Indian Railways has completed installation of Bio Toilets o­n its entire fleet ensuring ‘zero discharge’ from coaches o­n track. With this effort, nearly 2,74,000 litres per day of excreta o­n tracks is being avoided. Additionally, human waste led corrosion of rails and fittings costing Rs. 400 crore per annum is also avoided. 73,078 coaches have been fitted with 2,58,906 Bio Toilets across IR.

Southern Railway became the first zone in Indian Railways to commission the Nation’s first ‘Green Train Corridor’ between Manamadurai – Rameswaram stretch in July 2016 with all the trains running through the section retrofitted with Bio-toilets.  Southern Railway has retrofitted 100% of its coaches, i.e., a total of 7024 coaches with bio-toilets. This includes 4536 conventional coaches and 1392 LHB coaches.

Further, IR has planned to supplement the existing Bio Toilet system with Vacuum flushing system toilet (Bio-Vacuum Toilets), which substantially reduces the requirement of water for flushing, while ensuring effective flushing of fecal matter from the pans. Indian Railways have provided Bio Vacuum Toilet in total 1,372 LHB coaches and it has been decided to provide Bio Vacuum Toilets in AC LHB Coaches. Sanctions for 8,500 coaches are also available

Installation Of Automatic Coach Washing Plant (ACWP) to Save Water

This aims to provide infrastructure for major coaching depots for exterior cleaning of trains with substantial reduction in water consumption and saving in man power. Automatic Coach Washing Plants (ACWP) are now being installed at major depots. Exterior cleaning of coaches is done while placing the rake o­n washing lines (pit lines) through ACWP. ACWPs not o­nly clean the exterior of coaches more effectively and efficiently, they also reduce the direct water requirement by avoiding wastage. These also come with water recycling facilities thereby further reducing water requirements.

The details of ACWP in Indian Railways are hereunder:

Location Identified


Location installed


No. of Locations for which PO issued by COFMOW


Locations for which work awarded by Railways


Locations under the stage of work before award


Locations for which work has been sanctioned


Locations under process for sanction


Further, work is under process to get these plants installed at 69 additional locations in addition to already installed at 29 Locations across IR.

Advantages of ACWP

Normal Water consumption without ACWP - 1500 litres per coach

Water consumption for cleaning with ACWP - 300 litres per coach o­nly.

Recycled water use - 80% (240 litres)

Fresh water additional required - 20%( 60 litres)

Net water requirement per coach - 60 litres. Net saving in water consumption with ACWP - 96% reduction in water consumption.

Estimated annual savings of water- 1.28 Crore Kilolitres

In Southern Railway, sanction has been accorded for setting up Automatic Coaching Washing Plants at Tambaram, Ernakulam, Kochuveli, Nagercoil, Tiruchchirappalli and at EMU Car Sheds at Avadi & Tambaram. They are under various stages of execution.

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